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Factors Affecting Drug Absorption: General Factors

These are the general factors that affect drug absorption by all routes.

Aqueous Solubility of the Drug

  • The drug must dissolve in aqueous biophase in order to be able to cross the biological membrane.

  • The aqueous solubility depends on:

  • Disintegration: breaking down of solid dosage form into fine particles.

  • Dissolution: dissolution of active drug molecules from fine particles into the solution.

  • The more the aqueous solubility โ†’ the faster the absorption. e.g.:

  • Tablets take time to disintegrate and dissolve โ†’ absorption from them is slower.

  • In syrup, the drug is already dissolved and ready to be absorbed โ†’ absorption from them is faster.

Concentration of the Drug

Diffusion of drug molecules is driven by concentration gradient


The higher the concentration of drug


The faster the absorption.

Area of Absorbing Surface

The more the absorbing surface area


the more the absorption.

Blood Flow at the Absorbing Surface

Blood flow removes the absorbed drug from the site of absorption


concentration gradient is maintained for absorption of more drugs


so the more the blood flow


the faster the absorption.


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โ–ถ๏ธ Factors Affecting Drug Absorption: Route-Specific Factors

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